Thank you. Questions please. Usually, you know, there is a literature saying that people who have been bullied can sometimes also become bullies
themselves. (Yes.) Are you looking at this aspect or not? Did you ask this question? Yes, this is a very good question. So today I
only shared the prevalence of bullying like a victim and the bully itself.
But when I get enough sample size, I want to say that not only bully
and the victim…Both are happening together And also, maybe we can also see
the core occurrency of the bullying. Because they have so many different
bullying forms in there, so yeah… It’s true, it’s [such a] dynamic thing. Previous study of mine, I looked for how childhood bullying influences the
current university students bullying. You know, there is a very interesting
thing. When people were bullied as a child, there’s an increase, or it is very strongly related to their current bullying experience as well. But not only like the same trend–like a victim-to-victim or bully-to-bully, Because they have very cross-sectional–traditional side, face-to-face, and a cyber side. So some kids, when they were bullied as a
child in school, some are the bully online, when they are growing up in university. So they have a lot of dynamics going on. So yes, I am looking (for that). And my second question is also… You know they said–the little I read about school, they said (at a) younger age, it is very important… the role of a staff, and the principal, to
send a strong message, “We will not approve such…” and it was more for traditional bullying “We will not approve it and we will punish.” You are looking at NUS. Is NUS sending a strong message? Or is it not just a part of the culture that had an impact on bullying? I’m not sure yet because it’s just a really initial study so after the finding looking at my finding, maybe I can figure it out And inviting some expert team here And then we can talk more about what happens, based on our students’ characteristics and some other countries as well. A very good question, thank you. There’s time for one more question at the back. So I’m interested in the differences that you
observed between the different cultural contexts. First of all to do with the
cyber or face-to-face in the different cultural contexts And I wonder whether you think that the nature of the bullying is radically different or whether people answer the questions differently So do we have good granularity on what people think counts as bullying as a uni student when they’re in the U.S. versus when they’re here. Will they be choosing a different threshold beyond which they will call something bullying instead of like teasing where it’s kind of considered a normal digital interaction between young adults. So I’m sort of wondering about how those things might intersect And in a related way, I wonder do you also have indexes in your current surveys about digital device usage patterns because where we see that difference
between face-to-face interaction and digital, is that simply a consequence of how much more time one group versus the other is spending on their digital devices or is it how they’re interpreting the nature of those digital interactions? So I’m interested to hear your perspectives on what they’ve got and where you see that going in the future. Thank you very much for your questioning. They are mainly two questions. First is about bullying and it’s definition, right? It’s still debating in our…this…bullying study. Because some are strictly, like you mentioned, teasing and kicking. It can be (considered) bullying. But some people, some scholars, say it’s specifically for studying the university student or the older generation maybe Maybe the term of “bullying” is not applicable. Maybe we can use another term which is more familiar and more applicable. So here, in the bullying study association, we need to study a lot more, especially at the front stage we need to define and clarify the definition of bullying. It’s a very important thing. And the second (question), you’re asking about the digital things right? The previous study and one of my current studies, they found the lengths of using the online strongly related to the bullying behavior. But I think (it’s) not only that thing. It’s not only the lengths of online use, but also what types of online use. Because there is a lot of different uses, especially for the university students. They are using the online for academia, and for the gaming and some communicating. So a lot of [inaudible] of the activity, maybe they’re influenced differently. So we will also look at that one. And then after (it’s) finalized I also look at whether is there any differences between not only gender or race but also something different, like their faculty or their department. Because the social science students, they are pretty much well-versed about what bullying is rather than the engineering and the
computing students. So we also figure it out. Ok thank you.