El origen del neoliberalismo: El Coloquio de Lippmann – Bully Magnets

Bully Magnets Presents: The origin of the neoliberal movement arises
in the thirties of the twentieth century, in that then the changing and industrialized world
had created a social environment with new demands and needs for the population
and the working classes. And it is that with the development of the second Revolution
industrial work environment was created as never before seen where
enormous wealth was generated thanks to a virtually free capitalism that I didn’t know
limits. The principles of classical liberal economy
they were based on laissez faire, laissez passer, I sent him goes by Lui même, what he means
“Let do, let pass, what a world He directs himself. ” In practical terms that meant
that no one should get with freedom of markets, not even the strength of
then the logic of competition itself free would be the force that would regulate everything
naturally just … but in the end That was not entirely true. The old policy of letting go and leaving
passing did not last long, because the wear of classical liberalism showed its wear
during the twentieth century in the crises of 1929 with the great depression and more and more
abundant social mobilizations by of the labor unions. We must also add that fascism and
communism were growing very strongly at that time and they were quite proposed
news that was not known exactly towards where they were going and what possibilities they could have,
remember that we are talking about beginnings of the twentieth century, still the capitalists of
that moment they had something very clear Communism gives us credit From that scenario in crisis the intention was born
to reform classical liberalism and transform it in something new that was able to restore
society’s desire for the free market and at the same time fighting collectivism in anyone
of its forms, but to understand all this Let’s start this story from the beginning. The decline of liberalism was not something
surprise, because during the last decades of the nineteenth century became increasingly evident
the precariousness and inequality of the working class, as well as the social injustice that this generated
for unprotected sectors, as evidence just check the literature of the time
like Emile Zola and Charles Dickens’s where life for most was basically
horrible, unfair and without any rights. child abuse violence crime and misery,
the best ingredients for the big ones novels Another hard blow for classical liberalism
it was the beginning of the first world war in 1914, quantities were used in it
massive resources and the sacrifice of millions of lives where most states
he realized that he could manage the material and human resources from the government,
so once the war is over that control of the economy was not going to back down
so easily. And it is that after such a brutal demand
how the experience of war made it impossible return the population under the same conditions
of subordination that before, must exist an exchange or some kind of benefit
that each country should give in the form of benefits social funds financed by the state itself. crazy things that went against liberalism
classic, crazy things I tell you that New Conception of government control
of the economy allowed the creation of new labor laws such as restriction
of maximum hours of work, the ban child labor, mandatory rest days,
as well as the creation of works and services State-sponsored audiences were
the principles of what we now know how Social Democracy The central idea of ​​all these social claims
it was that economic freedom had no sense if people had no guarantees
subsistence minimums, such as services of health, a minimum wage, education or
minimum material goods. Ash, the poor want everything given away,
I call that a total inequality and an affront to free competition Finally the war is over, another moment
definitive was the crisis of 1929, which caused unemployment and insecurity in states
United and in the industrialized countries of Europe, so in addition to the economic coup
an ideological shock also appeared against capitalism and in search of new
alternatives like nationalism, communism or fascism, let’s just remember examples like
Spanish Phalanx, French Action or British Union of Fascists by Oswald Mosley. By this point it was clear that liberalism
classic economic could not survive and that the priority was no longer to maintain that model,
but only guarantee the existence of the market economy, hence during
the 1930s all industrialized countries they tried to reactivate through public spending
and the construction of all kinds of works of government hand, this particularly in
United States became known as the New deal implemented by Franklin d Roosevelt under
the inspiration of economic thought by John Maynard Keynes. In my book general theory of employment, the
interest and money, I state that the state can stimulate the economy with investment
public and thus facilitate the existence of private capital, this is mainly done
when financing road construction, ports, airports and all kinds of things. The idea of ​​Keynesianism is that if the government
reverses a chain reaction will be generated in all strata of the economy, what
which sounds pretty good in a context of economic depression like the one lived
at that time, although of course, it was a highly criticized exit for those who supported
classical liberalism In that context is that neoliberalism will be born
during an international conference that historically known as the colloquium
of Lippmann, what was celebrated between the 26 and on August 30, 1938, and in which
I was looking to set a new agenda for the liberalism, that is, it was about defense
of the market and the pricing mechanism as the only efficient way to organize the
economy, to establish it as the only model compatible with individual freedom,
as well as the only way to create a state of law with stable, unalterable laws
and representative, it was then about a congress that sought the renewal of
liberalism to make him able to face to that new world where they strengthened each
again the collectivist ideologies. The lippmann colloquium was our meeting
of capitalists to fight the ghost of communism Among the attendees, they were important
economists and politicians like the french Jacques Rueff, Louis Boudin, Raymond Aron,
Ernest Mercier; the Germans Wilhelm Röpke and Alexander Rüstow; also the Austrians
Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig von Mises, too the Spanish José Castillejos, as well as the
Americans Bruce Hopper and Walter Lippmann. Finally it was also discussed what it would be
the name that this movement would have renewal of liberalism on the one hand the
French Jacques Rueff proposed “liberalism on the left ”, but they didn’t like me because
it sounded too communist, then Louis Boudin suggested “individualism”, but there was no left
well because it sounded quite sinister, for his part Rougier preferred the name of “liberalism
positive ”, but it was certainly not because the name looked more like a self-help group,
finally the proposal of the German Alexander Rustow was the one of “neoliberalism”, that
It was a word that made it clear that I don’t know it was about classical liberalism but that
it was a new liberalism, with an etymological turn in the name that sounded classic and at the same time
It sounded pretty cool. I like it, that name has neopunch and we
gives opportunity to give a quick Neoaviso before continuing with this neohistory That’s right, because we want to thank everyone
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growing and reaching more people, now Yes friends, we continue! By the end of the meetings there were two
visions on how it should be implemented this new liberalism, on the one hand, was
the American version of Lippmann based on Keynes and on the other the Austrian version of
Hayek and Mises, the first was moderate and thought with the intervention of social spending of
been as a driver of the economy while that the Austrian version was less tolerant
with that idea, however, before the environment of the economic crisis the American version
prevailed After the colloquium the idea was to repeat meetings
annually under a council of liberalists to constantly decide which course to take,
however, this was suspended because in 1939 World War II broke out Second war forever Yeah well that’s anti-climatic … but hey,
still the Lippmann Keynesian model I continue only in the United States and once
finished the war that model would be applied in western industrialized countries,
but to explain it in more detail we have here to Walter Lippmann himself That’s right, my ideas were very contrary to
of classical liberalism, I believed that the economic freedom was not something spontaneous,
but the product of a legal order that presupposes the existence of the state, the markets are
then a historical fact, something that produces and not something natural that happens because
yes and for them to exist they depend on laws, standards, institutions, property rights,
patents, contracts, laws and many other legal things that don’t exist naturally
and that has to guarantee the state. Go all that sounds pretty dense, besides
that more than economic seems a political plan, With all that state laws and rules. That is one of the great novelties of the new
liberal plan because it is thought that the order of society is not definitive,
order is something constantly changing that the social inertia itself tends
to destroy, hence the need for there to be a clear, but flexible, firm framework of laws,
but that does not intervene in the freedom of people. What Lippmann says sounds pretty everyday
if we update it today, but for beginnings of the twentieth century was something quite revolutionary,
the new liberals sought laws for markets, but it was not firm laws
and rigorous as in fascism, nor instructions of how to live life, like communism,
it was rather the creation of a legal framework flexible that allowed free competition
from anyone We were legally looking for everything to be so
legally moldable that markets always they could act in … the gray zone, uuuuhhhh …
(spooky) The gray zone? Yes, you know the gray area of ​​the laws, hollows
legal that will always exist and that allow morally questionable things happen but
profitable, the new liberals we believe that what is right today tomorrow no longer
it will be, and the same the other way around, hence the need of the laws that set the tone for
where freedom should come The idea of ​​creating a neoliberal state is that
this can enunciate principles, but cannot give orders, because the state has to generate
the conditions for existence and good market performance, but not send
about them, come on, liberals don’t try to eliminate the state but redirect it to
That works legally in favor of the markets. The gray zone !!! Well, at the time the plan looked like a
good idea, but this form of neoliberal state finally reached its limits in mid
from the seventies and eighties, although that it will be history for another video, by the
moment we can only understand that in that time it was not known what would happen even with
communism and fascism and this new model liberal was the bet of the industrialized world
western to defend his worldview and of power. So there you have friends,
the history of the origin of neoliberalism, if you want to know more about what this concept is
I currently recommend this one video, I leave the link at the end and also
in the description, now yes, friends, I I’m Reijard and see you next time
chapter of this series on neoliberalism, goodbye! we still have many more stories to tell,
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all the time, finally if you want to dig deeper in the subject we have some bibliography to
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