Designing a Questionnaire – statistics help


Designing a Questionnaire. There are five steps
to designing a questionnaire: Define the problem. Plan how the survey will be administered. Write the questionnaire. Desk Check. Pilot Survey. It can be tempting to leap
straight to step three, and also to miss out steps four and five, but this will result in a substandard
questionnaire and poor data. Helen sells Choconutties. She has asked us to help her
design a questionnaire to help her develop a new product. We will use this as an example
to illustrate the steps. Step 1) Define the problem. We can do this by answering
these questions: What is the purpose of the questionnaire? This is important whether we are working
for someone else or for ourselves. Who is the target population? In other words, who would we like to ask
if we could ask everyone who matters? What is the information
going to be used for? What exactly do you want to find out? Think about what are possible sources
of variation. The purpose statement for Helen is: Helen is planning to introduce
a new chocolate product. She wants to find out
what type of chocolate product is most likely to be successful
in the market. Helen is most interested
in attracting new customers, so the target population is people
who don’t already buy Chocconutties but do buy chocolate. The information will be used to help
Helen develop new chocolate products. Helen wants to know, specifically,
what chocolate fillings are popular, and which kind of chocolate is preferred
by people who spend a lot on chocolate. Helen thinks there may be variation in chocolate preference
between men and women, and wishes to design
specifically to each market, so will need to ask if the respondent
is male or female. Step 2) Plan how the survey
will be administered. We can choose between phone,
personal interview, written or online questionnaire. These methods each have
different advantages and disadvantages. The method of administration
affects the types of questions that can be asked. For her budget, and because Helen wants to reach
more than just current customers, Helen wants to use
an online survey method. This will make creating the questionnaire
and doing the analysis much easier. Step 3) Write the questionnaire. Take each of the things
you want to find out about and write a question for it. There are many potential pitfalls
in writing questions. These are covered in another video,
Writing Good Questions
. Questionnaire structure is important. A good questionnaire
should be interesting, easy to answer and respectful. An informative title, clear introduction
and interesting, well-organised questions help the respondent to keep answering. The introduction needs to explain why the data is being collected
and for whom. This should also explain
about confidentiality of the responses. Interesting questions near the beginning help capture the attention
of the respondent, and a variety of question types
can help maintain interest. The demographic questions,
like age, income and gender should be left to the end. Clear instructions and sensible grouping
of questions by type or topic make the questionnaire easier to answer. A questionnairemustbe ethical. You must be careful not to ask questions
on sensitive subjects without getting proper
ethical approval or advice. Be respectful of the person’s time
by only including relevant questions, and say, “Thank you”, at the end. Step 4) Desk Check. Look at your questionnaire as if
you were seeing it for the first time. Read the instructions,
and fill out the answers. See what could be confusing. Make sure your spelling
and grammar are correct. Go through the list of things
you wanted to find out and put ticks next to the questions
that provide that data. Look closely at any questions with no tick and decide if they need to be
in the questionnaire. Consider how you would
record the responses. Generally, you make a table
or spreadsheet with a row for each person and a column for each question. Check to see that your questionnaire
is easy to code, like this. Because Helen is using
an online survey provider, much of this will be done for us. Now use what you found out
from your Desk Check to correct your questionnaire,
ready for Step 5) Pilot Survey. This is where you get some people
to answer your questionnaire. These responses will not form
part of the actual survey. Watch while they fill out
the questionnaire. Note anything that seems
confusing to them. Look at what the people have written. Ask them if they found
any of it confusing, boring or annoying. Thank them. If you’ve done a large Pilot Survey,
you could do a quick analysis of the data. See if there are any questions
that several people answer “Other” to. This might mean that you need to add another response alternative
in that question. Use what you found out
from the Pilot Survey to make changes to your questionnaire. If you make lots of changes,
do another Desk Check and, possibly, another Pilot Survey. You want your questionnaire to be good. If you follow these steps,
you should end up with a high quality questionnaire
ready for administering, which will result in better data. This video was brought to you
by Statistics Learning Centre. Visit our website for more resources
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