สงครามโลกครั้งที่ 2 เกิดอะไรขึ้นบ้าง? (ตอนที่ 1) | A Brief history of World War 2 (Part 1)


Hello! Today we are going to talk about World War II. But first Please Like and Share this clip and click Subscribe to the Spokedark channel Don’t forget to click the Alarm Thank you before we start lets do a quick survey From where did you learn about World War II? A. School B. Documentary films C. Movies D. Video games let’s vote! In last episode, we talked about the Axis powers and the cause of collaboration between Germany, Japan, and Italy. Although they had quite different goals they found enough reasons to join together. In Asia, World War II started in 1931 with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, a part of China, followed by the installation of puppet government in Manchukuo, and the terrifying occupation of Nanjing, the capital of China in 1938. The brutal slaughter and war crime committed by Japanese Army created unresolved tension between Japan and China. Up until today, Japanese government has never made official apology to China. Italy and Mussolini’s fascist party invaded Ethiopia in 1935, as well as other Mediterranean countries . While Nazi Germany invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938. In short, before World War II broke out, Europe had been suffering from wars between the countries that gained advantages and the countries that experienced disadvantages from the treaty of Versailles. At that time, Japan was worried that Asia would be under European colonial rules. They thought it might be better to be colonized by Asian countries. So Japan wanted to impose itself as a superpower. Though countless invasions occurred throughout this time the League of Nations tried to avoid another great war through negotiation. Neville Chamberlain, British Prime Minister at that time, launched the policy of “Appeasement”. After the Nazi had occupied some parts of Czechoslovakia where Hitler claimed as Germany’s territory, Chamberlain flew to meet Hitler in Berlin in an attempt to resolve the crisis. He agreed to cede parts of Czechoslovakia to Hitler, and Hitler promised to limit the expansion. But finally Hitler occupied whole Czechoslovakia. เDid he even care? Not at all. However, most of textbooks consider the Nazi invasion of Poland in September 1939 as the starting point of World War II. Why is it like that? Didn’t you just say that wars had broken out across the world? It was because Poland had signed a treaty with Britain and France after the end of World War I. They promised to protect Poland from invasion. So when Germany invaded Poland both Nations, as leaders of the league of nations, needed to declare war against Germany As the same as World War I When the European powers declared war, Colonial countries had to enter the war as well. The battle fronts spread out in both Africa and Middle east, where the European colonies were located. The stakes of the war were so high. Modern weapons tanks , aircrafts and ships require petroleum-based fuel which is abundant in the Middle East. What encouraged Germany to invade Poland, in spite of knowing that it would lead to the great war, was the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Germany secretly sent officials to negotiate with Soviet and signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a mutual non-aggression pact between the two powers. Soviet was to gain some territories of Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and could invade Finland without Germany interfering. Likewise, Soviet would not impede Germany from waging war against France and Britain. Although Soviet and Germany were not allied, it seemed Germany neither had to worry that Soviet would team up with Britain and France, nor about fighting on both western and eastern fronts. Hitler realized that otherwise Germany would never win. Even 8 months after the war declaration it was still not a total war. This period is called “The Phoney War”. with only limited military land operation. Britain tried to prevent war from spreading into its boarder. They impaired Germany’s strength and efficiency by using propaganda leaflets to hinder Sweden and Norway from selling resources, such as iron ore, to Germany. But it’s useless, the Nazi decided to occupy Norway. The Phoney War ended in May 1940, when Germany invaded Belgium to advance on France with a rapid strike. Belgium capitulated after 18 days. While France was defeated by Germany within 6 weeks because of inadequacy of weaponry and incompetent military tactics. The incident marked the end of diplomatic effort to avert the war. Winston Churchill became the Prime Minister of Britain, and insisted on fighting with the Nazi regardless of France’s defeat, contrary to the Chamberlain government, which desperately tried to avoid the war and attempted the negotiation with Hitler During German invasion of France there was an incident known as Miracle of Dunkirk British and French troops were trapped on the beach by the invading German army. British government sent out Ships to evacuate the troops but there were not enough to transport the mass of soldiers Fortunately, with the help of civilian boats sailing across the English Channel, more than 300,000 soldiers were rescued. Many people are still skeptical whether it was a real miracle or it was the decision of Germany not to launch attacks. A convincing theory suggests that the German commanders ordered to halt the army’s advance on Dunkirk, as they wanted to assemble a large army in preparation for invading Southern France. Only Air forces were assigned to drop bombs on British troops and ships. At the beginning of war, Hitler tried to isolate Britain from its allies, made it like the whole world, except Britain, had surrendered to the Axis powers. During this time, the Nazi divided France into 2 zones: one under German military occupation, the other under puppet government ,or “Vichy France”, to show that even France had turned to be allied with the Nazi. Later, Germany , Italy and Japan signed Tripartite Pact in September 1940. It was when the Axis powers officially formed. The isolation of Britain was effective in the beginning. The Nazi tried to prevent neutral countries from joining with Britain, especially middle European countries, such as Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia, where influence of Italy and Germany spread in. These countries finally became aligned with the axis. Now the axis didn’t have to worry about the war in North Africa Being aligned with middle European and Balkans countries persuaded Germany to fight Soviet. Tripartite Pact also encouraged Japanese Army to advance in Southeast Asia. At that time, Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram was the Prime Minister of Thailand. Within 2 hours after Japanese troops had landed. Thailand decided to join the axis, and declared war against the allied powers. As Japan is an island country their resources are not abundant But in this war Japan had a huge project. They wanted to invade Burma and India, and conquer Pacific Ocean for strategic stability. So they had to build railroads which reaching out across Southeast Asia Some parts of them are known as “the Death railway” where countless workers and war prisoners sacrificed their lives. Do you know Thailand was allied with the Axis powers? A. Yes B. No C. 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